GALAN - electric caldrons and heating equipments,  GALAN - for houses, apartments, offices and  cottages
Latvia; Riga; SIA "ALOVS"; Codes str. 24, LV-1003; tel/fax (+371) 67610688, mobile: 26761172
e-mail: galan@alovs.lv
Energo saving instruments of the new generation and economical systems of the heating
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E-mail: egerss@gmail.com
FAQ - frequently asked questions
Answers to the frequently asked questions about the electrodes heatings caldrons ""
 
How does an electrode caldron work?
What factors influence on a capacity and term of service of electrodes caldrons?
Why heatings systems on the base of electrodes caldrons as a rule more economical and more reliable electrospiral heating?
What is hysteresis (insall hysteresis)?
What pipes and radiators can be used in the heating system with the electrode caldron of ͻ?
How is it possible by a 1 kilowatt to heat 200 meters?
How to obtain a maximal economy in work of the heatings systems on the base of electric caldrons?
WHAT PROBLEMS CAN BE AT EDITING OF COPPER PIPELINES?
Principle of action of electrodes heatings caldrons of ""
 
How does an electrode caldron work?
 
    An electrode caldron works due to admission of current through water heater (water or non-freezing water heater
-ʻ).
    Admission of alternating current can be named an electrolysis, because there is only ionization of liquid, oscillation of ions with
industrial frequency 50 Hertz and heating liquids (an electrolysis and transfer of material of electrodes takes place only at a direct
current).
    Electrode caldron - stand and the very reliable heater of water (liquids) in ideal cases can work without replacement of elements
many years (ten of years).
 
What factors influence on a capacity and term of service of electrodes caldrons?
 
    It is necessary for work of electrode caldron, that a liquid had the required specific resistance (permittivity).
    For the caldrons of Joint-stock COMPANY specific resistance (permittivity) must be within the limits of 2950 - 3150 Om of
cm (320 - 340 Mk Simens/cm) at the temperature of 20. Measuring specific resistance is possible only by a device - conductometr.
At the start of the system it is necessary to use non-freezing water heater -ʻ which does not freeze to - 25 and
has the required specific resistance (permittivity). During work on ordinary water water must be prepared. Preparation of water is taken
to measuring of current on a phase at the temperature of water 15 - 20. If a current differs from recommended, add the distilled
water or ordinary salt 5 gramme (1 tea-spoon) on 100 litres (depending on the results of measuring of current). This procedure is
described in a passport on a caldron.
    An electric electrode caldron is part of the heating system. For providing of reliable, long, accident-free work of caldron the heating
system must correspond by recommended in a passport on a caldron to the system requirements: opened as, two waterpipes with
overhead potting|, diameter of serve and inverse pipe 32 - 40 mm, height of giving chimney no less than 2 , amount of liquid in the
system no more than 12 litres on 1 kW of power of caldron.
 
Why heatings systems on the base of electrodes caldrons as a rule more economical and more reliable electrospiral
heating?
 
    In spite of some complications at the start of the heatings systems on the base of electrodes caldrons, taking into account limitations in
applicability (it is impossible to use an electrode caldron for heating of warm chaffs, pools, beds in hothouses, access ways, steps, roofs
from ice| and icicles) in the classic two waterpipes system opened as with overhead potting, electrodes caldrons more economical
electrospiral heating at least on 20 - 30 %.
    The economy of electrodes caldrons is tested by practice of editing and exploitation during more than 12 years. Reliability and
economy is provided more stand, by a reliable construction. In electrospiral heating caldron electrospiral heating is heated at first, and
then electrospiral heating by the surface give the heat of liquid.
    A liquid acts part of heater in an electrode caldron. At admission of current, a liquid warms up by all volume being in a caldron. Using
the electrode heating of liquid it is possible to decrease the volume of caldron in once or twice as compared to electrospiral heating of
the same power. Power of electrode caldron depends on the temperature of liquid influent in it, and can get out automation, depending
on the changes of weathers terms.
At the correctly built system a caldron starts with small (less than 50 %) from nominal power, and at having warmed up gradually
collects nominal power. Modern automation allows to support a comfort temperature in the apartment with exactness 0,2 .
    At heating of out-of-town houses possibly the use of the a week programming, and similarly the use of cellular connection for the
management by the heating system.
    Thus an economy in work of electrodes caldrons is achieved for the account:
        to less inertia of heating (in once or twice);
        smooth start;
        applications of modern automation;
        constructions of the two waterpipes system opened as with overhead potting|, with modern radiators (except for cast-iron).
        Reliability and longevity is provided by simplicity of construction and application of modern materials.
 
What is hysteresis (setting of hysteresis)?
 
    In the case of the use of control stands Navigator for normal work of the heating system it is necessary to set the temperature of
the system on included in a caldron (inverse), on an exit from a caldron (serve) and hysteresis (setting of hysteresis) on every channel.
    Hysteresis (setting of hysteresis) is a difference between the temperature of disconnecting and subsequent including, is set on every
channel in a range from 1 to 9. We recommend to propose this parameter in limits:
        - on inverse 2 - 6;
        - on the serve 5 - 9.
 
What pipes and radiators can be used in the heating system with the electrode caldron ͻ?
 
    For the systems of heating any pipes which for this purpose are certificated can be used. We recommend to use metallic or
polypropylene.
    The use of metallplastic pipes is undesirable:
        connecting sanitary node substantially narrow the communicating sections;
        mechanical connections are often subject to flowings, especially at the use of antifrisians;
        a metallplastic pipe is often subject to deformation and stratification at oscillation of temperature of liquid.
    It is possible to use any modern radiators (steel, aluminiums, bimetallic).
        Using cast-iron radiators is undesirable, because they have the considerable volume of liquid, porous structure and contain mold
dirt inwardly.
        For providing of longevity and reliability of caldron, internal diameter of entrances and outputs pipes, and pipes sanitary node not
must be less than internal diameter of the entrance and output union coupling of caldron.
 
How is it possible by a 1 kilowatt to heat 200 meters?
 
    By cause for such and similar questions, as a rule, there is a carelessness.
    About power, consumption of electrodes caldrons and their ability to heat the apartments it is possible to know from different sources.
It is selling aids or information placed on this site.
    It is important to distinguish nominal power of caldron (kW) from the middle consumption of electric power in a heating season (kW
hour for 1 hour).
    It is important to distinguish the square meters of the heated apartment (m2) from cube meters (m3).
    For an example it is possible to consider the widespread case of heating of apartment by volume of 200 m3 (area 80 m2 at the 2,5 m
height of ceilings) by an electrode caldron -5 by nominal power of 5 kW. If this the apartment is dwelling, it is well warmed,
the middle consumption of electric power in a heating season (from September for March) will make an approximately 1 kW hour at 1
o'clock, that corresponds approximately 25 kW hour in 1 days (750 kW hour in 1 month).
    If the apartment is unoccupied:
        production apartment with strong ventilation;
        shop with good ability travel to cross-country (hundreds of buyers in days);
        autowashing.
    At that area 80 m2 (volume 200 m3) the middle consumption in a heating season can exceed a 1 kW hour in once or twice, because
these apartments have large heat of the loss |.
 
How to obtain a maximal economy in work of the heatings systems on the base of electric caldrons?
 
    For achieving good indexes it is necessary in an economy:
        that the apartment was well warmed (in accordance with the modern requirements to the dwellings apartments);
        it is very importantly correct (taking into account recommendations in instructions for exploitations) to build the heating system.
For achieving a considerable economy it is very importantly correct to choose the complete set of automation (managing devices).
    At the choice of automation the followings variants are possible:
        mechanical automation (managing mechanical devices);
        electronic automation (electronic digital managing devices).
    Mechanical automation contains the reliable, but primitive managing devices (bimetallic thermostats, contactors| of the second, fourth,
sixth size, thermal relays and etc). Unique dignity of mechanical automation is a small price.
    Lacks of mechanical automation:
        strong cottons during work (promoted noise);
        not exact, not economical management by heating.
    Mechanical automation is usually used for heating of not dwellings, productions, storages facilities, garages, wherever noise and
economy matters.
    Electronic automation (electronic digital managing devices) works far more quiet, more precisely manages heating, more economical
than mechanical automation (at least on 25 %).
    In every special case the complete set of electronic digital managing devices can be different. The economy of exploitation depends
on acquisition (consumption of electric energy). We will consider the example of heating of the well warmed dwelling-house the area 80
m2 (by volume of 200 m3) by the different complete sets of electronic digital managing devices. On such area (volume) an electrode
electric caldron befits "" of 5 kW. If as automation to use the three-channel electronic regulative indicator of temperature
"Navigator" - 5 kW, the middle consumption in a heating season will make an approximately 1 kW hour, that corresponds approximately
25 kW hour in one days or 750 kW hour in one month.
    The management in this case originates from the temperature of liquid on two channels - inverse (included in a caldron), serve (exit
from a caldron).
    If to use additionally an electronic room thermostat "Boilerman - 103", the management will be carried out from the temperature of air
in the apartment (in a range + 7 - + 30). The management becomes far simpler. Exactness of maintenance of room temperature is
multiplied. The system has time to react on days' changes of weathers terms. The consumption goes down on 15 % and will make in
days an approximately 21 kW hour and in a month approximately 630 kW hour.
    A yet greater economy can attain, if to use day's and a week programming of temperature of air in the apartment. Even, if in the
apartment constantly there are people, obtaining an economy is possible due to the drop in a temperature in a night-time. If a
temperature in the apartment goes down on 1, is saved approximately 3 % electric power. Reducing a temperature in the apartment
for the night from 23:00 to 8:00 with 25 to 20, we save additionally 8 % electric power. The consumption will make an
approximately 19 kW hour in days, and in a month 570 kW hour.
    If people are in a house not constantly, but go for work 5 days in a week, additionally reducing a temperature in the day-time from
10:00 to 18:00 with 25 to 16 we save 10 % electric power. The consumption will make in days an approximately 17 kW hour and in
a month 510 kW hour.
    If a summer residence is heated, with the mode of visit on Saturday and Sunday, reducing a temperature in the apartment with 25
to 10 from Monday for Friday, the middle consumption will make in days a 12 kW hour or 360 kW hour in a month.
The all higher considered variants of day's and a week programming of temperature of air are in the apartment, possible by setting
additionally of electronic room programmable indicator of temperature "Boilerman - 203" (in place of "Boilerman - 103").
 
WHAT PROBLEMS CAN BE AT EDITING OF COPPER PIPELINES?
 
    At implementation of copper pipelines an important problem is connection of copper with other metals in one system of circulation of
water. In the case of direct connection of copper with the steel zincked by steel or aluminium, there is the electrochemical reaction,
causing rapid dissolution of iron, zinc and aluminium. And also it is impossible to use a pipe as the element of grounding of the electrical
engineering. For the exception of this phenomenon it is necessary to dissociate these metals from a copper by an insulating gasket. Even
in default of metallic joint a copper stimulates corrosion of foregoing materials. This process is the result of the selected in sediment ions
of copper (Cu2+), penetrable in water in the process of even corrosion of copper surfaces. Ions are besieged in the places of already
arising corrosive ulcers up, is caused speed-up destruction of basic material (became, zincked steel, or aluminium). To the most
dangerous forms of corrosion belongs ulcerous and erosive.
    Ulcerous corrosion, that local corrosion of metal, comes in the places of destruction of oxide protective tape, covering internal, being
in touch with water, surface of pipes. In the pipes of cold and hot water-supply, the factors transferred below hamper formation of
protective tape or damage already existent tape:
        wrong chemical composition of copper,
        wrong preparation of internal surfaces of pipes in the process of their production,
        loss of solder on the internal surface of pipes,
        presence into the pipes of hard particles (for example, sand) which got to setting during editing or during exploitation (from here
requirement of filtration of water both given in the system and used for its washing).
    Erosive corrosion is caused by the turbulent flow of water at the walls of pipes. Thus, the observance of project speed of flow of
water, and also exception of local resistances, is important, for example narrowing, influxes from a solder, wrong executed taking.
    In the systems of heating combination became and coppers possibly only at maintenance of oxygen in water not exceeding 0,1
mg/dm3, that practically possibly only in the closed systems. Even in the closed system of circulation it is not recommended to apply a
copper and aluminiums radiators in one chart.
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